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Hair Analysis for Dogs
Hair Analysis Kit for Dogs

Hair Analysis for Dogs

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Part Number:86

January 2016 - SAD NEWS FROM DR DOBIAS - DR DOBIAS HAS ANNOUNCED THAT HIS PRODUCTS WILL NO LONGER BE AVAILABLE THROUGH RESELLERS.  WE ARE VERY DISAPPOINTED BUT HOPE THAT THIS DECISION IS A POSITIVE ONE FOR HIS COMPANY.  YOU WILL NO LONGER BE ABLE TO BUY HIS PRODUCTS ANYWHERE EXCEPT FROM HIS WEBSITE. WE ARE TESTING ALTERNATIVES, SO PLEASE CHECK BACK SOON.


HAIR ANALYSIS TEST CAN ASSIST YOU TO:

*find out which minerals are missing in your dog's diet
*detect the the levels of harmful heavy metals
*adjust your dog's supplement doses
*prevent disease and cancer
*prevent premature aging
*maintain proper organ and immune system function
 
Hair Analysis test is offered to provide you with valuable information on your dog's nutritional status in the effort to help create healthier and longer life. The results can be used for the purpose of disease prevention or optimizing your dog's nutrition during disease treatment. While Hair Analysis test is not intended to treat or diagnose a disease, it will give you a very good idea if you need to need to change your dog's diet, increase or reduce certain supplement or search for the source of excess.
 
MORE DETAILS:
Hair is formed from clusters of matrix cells that make up the follicles. During the growth phase, the hair is exposed to the internal metabolic environment such as the circulating blood, lymph, and extracellular fluids. As the hair continues to grow and reaches the surface of the skin, its outer layers harden, locking in the metabolic products accumulated during this period of hair formation. This biological process provides us with a blueprint and lasting record of nutritional metabolic activity that has occurred during this time. Determining the levels of the elements in the hair is a highly sophisticated analytical technique; when performed to exacting standards and interpreted correctly, it may be used as a screening aid for mineral deficiencies, excesses, and/or biochemical imbalances. Hair Analysis test provides you with a sensitive indicator of the long-term effects of diet and toxic metal exposure. The Hair Analysis test results are obtained in a government licensed clinical laboratory adhering to analytical procedures that comply with governmental protocol.
 
SAMPLING is done by shaving about one TBSP of clean hair from the dog, placing in the included envelope, and mailing for the prepaid analysis.
 
TESTS FOR THESE ELEMENTS:
 
CA - CALCIUM Calcium is a very important mineral in human metabolism, making up about 1-2% of an adult human's body weight. In addition to that its calcium is used to help control muscle and nerve function, as well as to manage acid/base balance in our blood stream.
Function • provide bone support and lowers the risk of poor bone integrity • help maintain the acid/alkaline balance in the blood • support muscle health
 
Food sources Ideally, dogs should not be fed dairy in their diet. Other sources of calcium are canned sardines or salmon, bok choy, and turnip greens
 
Deficiency: • Back or neck pain • Bone fractures • Muscle Cramping • Dry Skin and Brittle Nails • Bone pain or tenderness • Osteoporosis • Loss of height • Stooped posture due to kyphosis (abnormal curving of the spine and humpback)
 
Recommended for low calcium levels: GreenMin
 
MG - MAGNESIUM The body contains large amounts of the element magnesium. Magnesium is involved in more than 300 chemical reactions and usually referred to as a "macromineral.” Inside the body, magnesium is found mostly in our bones (60-65%), but also in our muscles (25%), and in other cell types and body fluids. Like all minerals, magnesium cannot be made in our body and must therefore be plentiful in our diet in order for us to remain healthy. Magnesium is sometimes regarded as a "smoothie" mineral, since it has the ability to relax our muscles. Our nerves also depend upon magnesium to avoid becoming overexcited, and this aspect of magnesium links this mineral to maintenance of healthy blood pressure.
 
Function: • Relax nerves and muscles • Build and strengthen bones • Blood circulation
 
Food sources Other sources of magnesium include swiss chard and spinach, mustard greens, turnip greens, pumpkin seeds, sea vegetables, green beans and collard greens. There are numerous good sources of magnesium including salmon, kale and flaxseeds.
 
Deficiency: • Muscle weakness, tremor, or spasm • Heart arrhythmia, irregular contraction, or increased heart rate • Softening and weakening of bone • Imbalanced blood sugar levels • Headaches • Elevated blood pressure
 
NA- SODIUM Sodium is an element with an atomic number of 11 and the symbol Na. Table salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) is the most common form of dietary sodium and is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine. Other sodium salts exist in the diet, including sodium bicarbonate (baking soda; NaHCO3) and sodium acetate.
 
Function: • Sodium is necessary for the function of nerves and muscles, as well as for fluid and electrolyte balance. In my opinion, the “no salt” recommendations in dogs was created by the pet food industry. So far, I have found no scientific evidence to confirm their claims and do not see a problem with the occasional reasonably salty meal for your dog.
 
Food sources: • Table salt, meat and fish
 
Excess: Too much sodium may include cardiovascular disease (stroke, heart failure), kidney disease, osteoporosis, and stomach cancer. Sodium evaluation is more frequently done by a blood test. If your dog's sodium is low, we suggest you to have a blood test done with your regular veterinary care provider.
 
K - POTASSIUM Potassium, sodium and chloride comprise the electrolyte family of minerals. About 95% of the potassium in the body is stored within cells, while sodium and chloride are predominantly located outside the cell. Potassium is very important in regulating neuro-muscular activity. The frequency and degree to which our muscles contract, and the degree to which our nerves become excitable, both depend heavily on the presence of potassium in the right amount.
 
Function: • Help your muscles and nerves function properly • Maintain the proper electrolyte and acid-base balance in your body • Help lower your risk of high blood pressure
 
Food Sources: Potassium is found in abundance in many foods, and is especially easy to obtain in vegetables. Excellent sources of potassium include chard, mustard greens, summer squash, romaine lettuce, turnip greens, asparagus, kale, beets, green beans, and papaya, ginger root. Deficiency and excess: • Hypokalemia (low levels of potassium in the blood serum) may cause muscle cramps and pain, weakness, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Hypokalemia may be caused by decreased potassium intake, vomiting, burns, dialysis and sweating. • Potassium supplementation is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hypokalemia in medical treatments and is a common addition in intravenous fluids. • Hyperkalemia (too much potassium in the blood serum) may cause potentially severe problems to the brain and the neural, and cardiovascular systems. • Hyperkalemia may be caused by increased potassium intake, decreased potassium excretion, or redistribution of potassium caused by medications or supplements. Addison’s disease is one of the most serious cause of hyperkalemia which in some case may be life threatening. • Blood test is usually the most accurate method to determine potassium levels. Potassium evaluation is more frequently done by a blood test. If your dog's sodium is low or high, we suggest you to have a blood test done with your regular veterinary care provider.
 
CU - COPPER Copper is a trace mineral that plays an important role in our metabolism, largely because it allows many critical enzymes to function properly. Although copper is the third most abundant trace mineral in the body, the total amount of copper in the body is only 75-100 milligrams, less than the amount of copper in a penny. Copper is present in every tissue of the body, but is stored primarily in the liver, so concentrations of the mineral are highest in that organ, with lesser amounts found in the brain, heart, kidney, and muscles.
 
Function: • Help your body utilize iron • Reduce tissue damage caused by free radicals • Maintain the health of your bones and connective tissues • Help your body produce the pigment called melanin • Keep your thyroid gland functioning normally • Preserve the myelin sheath that surrounds and protects your nerves
 
Food Sources: Excellent sources of copper include asparagus, calf's liver, crimini mushrooms, turnip greens and molasses. Very good sources of copper include chard, spinach, sesame seeds, mustard greens, kale, shiitake mushrooms, and cashews. Good sources of copper include eggplant, tomatoes, summer squash, winter squash, green peas, romaine lettuce, garlic, sunflower seeds, green beans, beets, fennel, olives, leeks, sweet potato, quinoa, buckwheat, barley, spelt, tempeh, tofu, soybeans, miso, scallops, shrimp, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds, peanuts, almonds, pineapple, raspberries, lentils, garbanzo beans, lima beans, kidney beans, ginger, and black pepper.
 
Deficiency: • Anemia • Blood vessels that rupture easily • Bone and joint problems • Elevated LDL cholesterol and reduced HDL cholesterol levels • Frequent infections • Loss of hair or skin color • Fatigue and weakness • Difficulty breathing and irregular heart beat • Skin sores.
 
ZN - ZINC Zinc is a trace mineral necessary for the functioning of more than 300 different enzymes and plays a vital role in a large number of biological processes.
 
Function: • regulation of gene expression, protein folding, and immunity. • Zinc is a cofactor for many enzymes that would not be effective without this element.
 
Food Sources: • It is available through foods such as beef and other red meats. Within the body, zinc is distributed in the muscle, bone, skin, kidney, liver, pancreas, retina, prostate, and particularly in the red and white blood cells.
 
Deficiency: • Severe zinc deficiency may still be observed in processed food fed and malnourished dogs and may result in growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and low fertility (in males). • Mild zinc deficiency may be overlooked, since symptoms are not always evident, but it may include, for example, loss of hair, appetite, weight, and the lowered senses of taste and smell.
 
P - PHOSPHORUS Function: • Phosphorus is critical for energy storage and metabolism, the utilization of many B-complex vitamins, the buffering of body fluids, kidney excretion of hydrogen ions, proper muscle and nerve function, and maintaining calcium balance. • It is vital to the formation of bones and teeth, and healthy bones and soft tissues require calcium and phosphorus to grow and develop throughout life.
 
Food Sources: • It is found in many foods such as grains, dried beans, peas and nuts.
 
Deficiency and excess: • Deficiency is rare in dogs. • Conversely, excess phosphate intake can lead to hyperphosphatemia (high blood phosphorus levels), which occurs particularly in dogs fed a processed grain based diet. Increased phosphorus/calcium ratio can cause bone weakness and joint issues such as hip dysplasia.
 
FE - IRON Function: • Iron is an essential mineral and an important component of proteins involved in oxygen transport and metabolism. • Iron is also essential in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. • Approximately 15 percent of the body's iron is stored for future needs and mobilized when dietary intake is inadequate. The body usually maintains normal iron status by controlling the amount of iron absorbed from food.
 
Supplements: • If your dog is deficient, Ferrofood supplement is an excellent source of iron Other sources: • There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and nonheme. • Sources of heme iron include meat, fish, and poultry. • Sources of nonheme iron, which is not absorbed as well as heme iron, include red beans, lentils, flours, cereals, and grain products. However, because these should not be a common source of diet of canines, it appears that iron is often deficient based on Hair Analysis test results and needs to be supplemented. • Other sources of iron include dried fruit, peas, asparagus, leafy greens, strawberries, and nuts.
 
Deficiency: At appears that iron deficiency is relatively common and this mineral may need extra supplementation. If your dogs iron levels are low, we recommend Bioavailable Iron Supplement.
 
MN - MANGANESE Function: • Helps the body utilize several key nutrients such as biotin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, and choline • Keep your bones strong and healthy • Help your body synthesize fatty acids and cholestorol • Maintain normal blood sugar levels • Promote optimal function of your thyroid gland • Maintain the health of your nerves • Protect your cells from free-radical damage
 
Sources: • Excellent food sources of manganese include mustard greens, kale, chard, romaine lettuce, collard greens, spinach, garlic, summer squash and turmeric.
 
Deficiency and excess: • Nausea • Vomiting • Poor glucose tolerance (high blood sugar levels) • Skin rash • Loss of hair color • Excessive bone loss • Low cholesterol levels • Dizziness • Hearing loss • Reproductive system difficulties
 
CR - CHROMIUM Chromium is an essential trace element that exists naturally in trivalent and hexavalent states.
 
Function • Helps to maintain normal blood sugar and insulin levels • Supports normal cholesterol levels Food Sources: Although chromium occurs naturally in a wide variety of foods, many foods contain only 1 or 2 micrograms (mcg) of chromium per serving. In addition, food processing methods often remove the naturally occurring chromium. As a result, obtaining a sufficient amount of chromium in the diet can be difficult.
 
Concentrated foods sources of chromium include brewer's yeast, Many animals do not get enough chromium in their diet due to food processing methods that remove the naturally occurring chromium.
 
Deficiency: • Hyperinsulinemia (elevated blood levels of insulin) • High blood pressure • High blood sugar levels • Insulin resistance
 
SE - SELENIUM This micromineral is needed in the diet on a daily basis, but only in very small amounts (50 micrograms or less). Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral (1;2) found in soil, water, and some foods. It is a component in the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Selenium functions as a cofactor for the antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, whose main role is to protect organisms from oxidative damage, and some thioredoxin reductases, which are essential for cell growth and survival. Function: • Protect cells from free-radical damage • Enable your thyroid to produce thyroid hormone • Help lower your risk of joint inflammation
 
Sources: Excellent sources of selenium include cod, shrimp, salmon, and mustard seeds.
 
Deficiency: • Weakness or pain in the muscles • Discoloration of the hair or skin • Whitening of the fingernail beds
 
Excess is relatively common in animals that get “synthetic" vitamin and mineral supplements. If you dog has higher than normal levels of selenium, check the supplement labels and stop them or reduce their dose.
 
B - BORON Function: • Increases steroid hormones such as the sex hormone and vitamin D. • Plays a role in cell membrane functions that influence response to hormone action, trans-membrane signaling, and trans-membrane movement of regulatory ions. • Has a role as a metabolic regulator in several enzyme systems. It is involved in in the synthesis of RNA. • Indirectly influences calcium homeostasis, through vitamin D metabolism. Food Sources: Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of boron. However, the concentration of boron in plants depends on adequate concentrations of boron in the soil that is why mineral testing and adequate supplementation is important.
 
Deficiency: • Some signs of boron deficiency noted in the literature are depressed growth and reduction in steroid hormone concentrations • Because boron plays a role in bone metabolism, boron deficiency may be associated with an increased risk for bone loss. An inadequate intake of boron leads to increased urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium, and lower serum concentrations of estrogen and testosterone.
 
Excess of Boron may be present if you use for example Borax powder for laundry or cleaning. While Borax is not highly toxic, there are some concerns about Borax in fertility.
 
CO - COBALT Function: • The functions and activity of cobalt are essentially the same as vitamin B12. Therefore, cobalt plays a role in red blood cell production. • Along with Manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni), cobalt can substitute for Zinc (Zn) in the metalloenzymes, angiotensin-converting enzyme, carboxypeptidase, and carbonic anhydrase.
 
Sources: Dietary sources of cobalt are the same as vitamin B12, such as foods of animal origin or fermented foods where the bacteria produce the vitamin. Organ meats are also good sources of vitamin B12 followed by extra-lean beef, seafood, egg. Chicken and miso (a fermented soybean product).
 
Deficiency: A deficiency in cobalt is ultimately a deficiency in vitamin B12. • Slow growth rate • Chronic fatigue syndrome • Nerve damage • Slow growth in children • Undue fatigue • Pernicious anemia • High or low serum iron • Slow recovery • Digestive disorders • Poor circulation. It appears that Cobalt deficiency is relatively common in dogs and it needs to be supplemented separately. If your dogs iron levels are low, we recommend VitaminB12 + Cobalt Supplement
 
MO - MOLYBDENUM Function: • Molybdenum functions mainly as an enzyme cofactor.
 
Sources: Organ meats. A diet high in processed foods may lead to a deficiency in molybdenum.
 
Deficiency: • Molybdenum deficiency is rare, unless the diet contains high amounts of the antagonistic substances such as, sulfate, copper or tungsten. • Signs of molybdenum deficiency are mouth and gum disorders, mental disturbance, and coma.
 
S - SULFUR Sulfur is an interesting nonmetallic element that is found mainly as part of larger compounds. Sulfur represents about 0.25 percent of our total body weight, similar to potassium. The body contains approximately 140 grams of sulfur-mainly in the proteins, although it is distributed in small amounts in all cells and tissues. Sulfur has a characteristic odor that can be smelled when hair or sheep's wool is burned. Keratin, present in the skin, hair, and nails, is particularly high in the amino acid cystine, which is found in sulfur. The sulfur-sulfur bond in keratin gives it greater strength.
 
Function: • As part of four amino acids, sulfur performs a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. • It is necessary for formation of collagen, the protein found in connective tissue in our bodies. Sulfur is also present in keratin, which is necessary for the maintenance of the skin, hair, and nails, helping to give strength, shape, and hardness to these protein tissues. • Sulfur is also present in the fur of animals. The cystine in hair gives off the sulfur smell when it is burned. • Sulfur, as cystine and methionine, is part of other important body chemicals: insulin, which helps regulate carbohydrate metabolism, and heparin, an anticoagulant. Taurine is found in bile acids, used in digestion. • The sulfur-containing amino acids help form other substances as well, such as biotin, coenzyme A, lipoic acid, and glutathione. The mucopoly-saccharides may contain chondroitin sulfate, which is important to joint tissues. • Sulfur is important to cellular respiration, as it is needed in the oxidation-reduction reactions that help the cells utilize oxygen, which aids brain function and all cell activity. These reactions are dependent on cysteine, which also helps the liver produce bile secretions and eliminate other toxins.
 
Sources: As part of four amino acids, sulfur is readily available in protein foods - meats, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, and legumes are all good sources. Egg yolks are one of the better sources of sulfur. Other foods that contain this somewhat smelly mineral are onions, garlic, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and turnips. Nuts have some, as do kale, lettuce, kelp and other seaweed, and raspberries. Complete vegetarians (those who eat no eggs or milk) and people on low-protein diets may not get sufficient amounts of sulfur; the resulting sulfur deficiency is difficult to differentiate clinically from protein deficiency, which is of much greater concern.
 
Deficiency: There is minimal reason for concern about either toxicity or deficiency of sulfur in the body. No clearly defined symptoms exist with either state. Sulfur deficiency is more common when foods are grown in sulfur-depleted soil, with low-protein diets, or with a lack of intestinal bacteria, though none of these seems to cause any problems in regard to sulfur functions and metabolism.
 
TOXIC ELEMENTS:
Determining, what toxic elements are present in your dog's or cat's body is very important as their higher levels are directly linked to a variety of health conditions, higher rate of cancer and shortened life span.
 
SB - ANTIMONY Antimony is a silvery white metal of medium hardness that breaks easily. Small amounts of antimony are found in the Earth's crust. Antimony oxide is a white powder that does not evaporate. Only a small amount of it will dissolve in water. Most antimony oxide produced is added to textiles and plastics to prevent them from catching on fire. Sources: Antimony is found at very low levels in the environment, so low that we often cannot measure it. An individual may be exposed to antimony by breathing air, drinking water, and eating foods that contain it. Skin contact with soil, water, and other substances may also increase contamination.
 
Effect: Exposure to 9 milligrams per cubic meter of air (mg/m³) of antimony for a long time can irritate your eyes, skin, and lungs. Breathing 2 mg/m³ of antimony for a long time can cause problems with the lungs (pneumoconiosis), heart problems (altered electrocardiograms), stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers.
 
U - URANIUM Uranium is a hard, dense, malleable, ductile, silver-white, radioactive metal. Uranium metal has very high density. When finely divided, it can react with cold water. In air it is coated by uranium oxide, tarnishing rapidly. It is attacked by steam and acids. Uranium can form solids solutions and intermetallic compounds with many of the metals.
 
Sources: Although uranium is radioactive, it is not particularly rare. It is widely spread throughout the environment and so it is impossible to avoid uranium. Uranium can be found naturally in the environment in very small amounts in rocks, soil, air and water. In air the uranium concentrations are very low. Even at higher than usual concentrations in air, there is so little uranium present per cubic meter that less than one atom transfers every day. In water most of the uranium is dissolved uranium that derives from rocks and soil that the water runs over. Some of the uranium is suspended, so that the water gets a muddy texture. Only a very small part of uranium in water settles from air. The amounts of uranium in drinking water are generally very low. Uranium is found in soils in varying concentrations that are usually very low. Humans add uranium to the soil through industrial activities.
 
Effect: Scientists have detected no harmful radiation effects of natural levels of uranium. However, chemical effects may occur after the uptake of large amounts of uranium and these can cause health effects such as kidney disease. When people are exposed to uranium radionuclides that are formed during radioactive decay for a long period of time, they may develop cancer. The chances of getting cancer are much higher when people are exposed to enriched uranium, because that is a more radioactive form of uranium. This form of uranium gives off damaging radiation, which can cause people to develop cancer within a few years. Enriched uranium may end up in the environment during accidents in nuclear power plants.
 
AS - ARSENIC Arsenic appears in three allotropic forms: yellow, black and grey; the stable form is a silver-gray, brittle crystalline solid. It tarnishes rapidly in air, and at high temperatures burns forming a white cloud of arsenic trioxide. Arsenic is a member of group Va of the periodic table, which combines readily with many elements. The metallic form is brittle, tharnishes and when heated it rapidly oxidizes to arsenic trioxide, which has a garlic odor. The non metallic form is less reactive but will dissolve when heated with strong oxidizing acids and alkalis.
 
Sources: Arsenic can be found naturally on earth in small concentrations. It occurs in soil and minerals and it may enter air, water and land through wind-blown dust and water run-off.
 
Effect: Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements that can be found. Despite their toxic effect, inorganic arsenic bonds occur on earth naturally in small amounts. Exposure to inorganic arsenic can cause various health effects, such as irritation of the stomach and intestines, decreased production of red and white blood cells, skin changes and lung irritation. It is suggested that the uptake of significant amounts of inorganic arsenic can intensify the chances of cancer development, especially the chances of development of skin cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer and lymphatic cancer. A very high exposure to inorganic arsenic can cause infertility and miscarriages with women, and it can cause skin disturbances, declined resistance to infections, heart disruptions and brain damage with both men and women. Finally, inorganic arsenic can damage DNA. A lethal dose of arsenic oxide is generally regarded as 100 mg.
 
BE - BERYLLIUM Beryllium is a toxic bivalent element, steel gray, strong, light-weight, primarily used as hardening agent in alloys. Beryllium has one of the highest melting points of the light metals. It has excellent thermal conductivity, is nonmagnetic, it resists attack by concentrated nitric acid and at standard temperature and pressures beryllium resist oxidation when exposed to air.
 
Sources: The beryllium content on Earth crust is 2.6 ppm, in soil 6 ppm. Beryllium in soil can pass into the plants grown on it, provided it in a soluble form. Typical levels in plants vary between 1 and 40 ppb, too low to affect animals which eat these plants. Beryllium is found in 30 different minerals, the most important of which are bertrandite, beryl, chrysoberyl, and phenacite. Precious forms of beryl are aquamarine and emerald. Effect: The most commonly known effect of beryllium is called berylliosis, a dangerous and persistent lung disorder that can also damage other organs, such as the heart Beryllium can also cause allergic reactions with people that are hypersensitive to this chemical. These reactions can be very severe and they can even cause a person to be seriously ill, a condition known as Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). The symptoms are weakness, tiredness and breathing problems. Next to causing berylliosis and CBD, beryllium can also increase the chances of cancer development and DNA damage.
 
HG - MERCURY Mercury is the only common metal which is liquid at ordinary temperatures. Mercury is sometimes called quicksilver and is a heavy, silvery-white liquid metal. It alloys easily with many metals such as gold, silver and tin. These alloys are called amalgams. Sources: Mercury occurs uncombined in nature to a limited extent. It rarely occurs free in nature and is found mainly in cinnabar ore (HgS) in Spain, Russia, Italy, China and Slovenia. Mercury enters the environment as a result of normal breakdown of minerals in rocks and soil through exposure to wind and water.
 
Effect: Mercury has a number of effects on humans, that can all of them be simplified into the following main effects: - Disruption of the nervous system - Damage to brain functions - DNA damage and chromosomal damage - Allergic reactions, resulting in skin rashes, tiredness and headaches - Negative reproductive effects, such as sperm damage, birth defects and miscarriages
 
CD - CADMIUM Cadmium is a lustrous, silver-white, ductile, very malleable metal. Its surface has a bluish tinge and the metal is soft enough to be cut with a knife, but it tarnishes in air. It is soluble in acids but not in alkalis. It is similar in many respects to zinc but it forms more complex compounds.
 
Sources: Cadmium can mainly be found in the earth's crust. It always occurs in combination with zinc. Cadmium also consists in the industries as an inevitable by-product of zinc, lead and copper extraction. After being applied it enters the environment mainly through the ground, because it is found in manures and pesticides. Naturally a very large amount of cadmium is released into the environment, about 25,000 tons a year. About half of this cadmium is released into rivers through weathering of rocks and some cadmium is released into air through forest fires and volcanoes. The rest of the cadmium is released through human activities, such as manufacturing.
 
Effect: Human uptake of cadmium takes place mainly through food. Foodstuffs that are rich in cadmium can greatly increase the cadmium concentration in human bodies. Examples are liver, mushrooms, shellfish, mussels, cocoa powder and dried seaweed. An exposure to significantly higher cadmium levels occurs when people smoke. Some health effects that can be caused by cadmium are: - Diarrhea, stomach pains and severe vomiting - Bone fracture - Reproductive failure and possibly even infertility - Damage to the central nervous system - Damage to the immune system - Psychological disorders - Possibly DNA damage or cancer development
 
PB - LEAD Lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal. It is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion but tarnishes upon exposure to air. Lead isotopes are the end products of each of the three series of naturally occurring radioactive elements.
 
Sources: Native lead is rare in nature. Currently lead is usually found in ore with zinc, silver and copper and it is extracted together with these metals. Lead occurs naturally in the environment. However, most lead concentrations that are found in the environment are a result of human activities. Due to the application of lead in gasoline an unnatural lead-cycle has consisted. In car engines lead is burned, so that lead salts (chlorines, bromines, oxides) will originate.
 
Effect: Lead can cause several unwanted effects, such as: - Disruption of the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and anemia - A rise in blood pressure - Kidney damage - Miscarriages and subtle abortions - Disruption of nervous systems - Brain damage - Declined fertility of men through sperm damage - Diminished learning abilities of children - Behavioral disruptions of children, such as aggression, impulsive behavior and hyperactivity Lead can enter a foetus through the placenta of the mother. Because of this it can cause serious damage to the nervous system and the brains of unborn children.
 
AL - ALUMINUM Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal. It has a dull silvery appearance, because of a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. Aluminum is nontoxic (as the metal) nonmagnetic and non-sparking. Aluminum has only one naturally occurring isotope, aluminium-27, which is not radioactive. Sources: Aluminum is an abundant element in Earth's crust: it is believed to be contained in a percentage from 7.5% to 8.1%. Aluminum is very rare in its free form. Aluminum is a reactive metal and it is hard to extract it from its ore, aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Aluminum is among the most difficult metals on earth to refine.
 
Effect: The uptake of aluminum can take place through food, through breathing and by skin contact. Long lasting uptakes of significant concentrations of aluminum can lead to serious health effects, such as: - Damage to the central nervous system - Dementia - Loss of memory - Listlessness - Severe trembling Aluminum is a risk in certain working environments, such as mines, where it can be found in water. People that work in factories where aluminum is applied during production processes may endure lung problems when they breathe in aluminum dust. Cooking with aluminum dishes or foil is not recommended Aluminum can cause problems for kidney patients when it enters the body during kidney dialyses.